Osteoporoza, kako joj i samo ime kaže, predstavlja bolest poroznih kostiju – ona se, dakle, manifestuje smanjenjem gustine kostiju što uzrokuje da one postanu porozne i sklonije lomljenju.

U normalnim okolnostima, kalcijum je taj koji čuva zdravlje naših kostiju i osigurava čvrstinu kosti i koštanog tkiva, pa zato, kada on postane deficitiran, dolazi i do problema sa kostima i njihovom čvrstinom, kao i mogućnošću da se odupru različitim fizičkim stresovima, poput udaraca i padova. 

Do nedostatka kalcijuma prvenstveno dolazi kod starijih osoba, pa su oni i skloniji osteoporozi, ali i mnogi drugi faktori mogu uticati na nedostatak ovog dragocenog minerala. I uopšte, za prevenciju ove bolesti od velikog značaja su i ishrana, kao i različiti vitamini i minerali koji mogu poboljšati kvalitet kostiju.

Kako osteoporoza nastaje?

Osteoporoza predstavlja progresivni gubitak koštane mase. Ova bolest nastaje tako što se gustina kostiju postepeno smanjuje usled čega kosti postaju krhke i lako lomljive. Do osteoporoze dolazi kada je proces formiranja nove koštane mase sporiji od gubitka iste, odnosno, kada se izgubi ravnoteža između procesa formiranja i propadanja kostiju. Kada je ova bolest prisutna rizik od preloma kostiju značajno se povećava, a najosetljiviji su kukovi i kičmeni pršljenovi, kao i druge kosti koje su izložene većem opterećenju. 

U mladosti, telo brže proizvodi novu koštanu masu, međutim, već nakon ranih dvadesetih taj proces se usporava, a smatra se da većina ljudi vrhunac koštane mase dostiže oko tridesete godine. 

Koga ova bolest pogađa?

Kao što smo već pomenuli, osteoporoza je bolest kojoj su pre svega izložene starije osobe, prvenstveno zbog, takođe već pomenutog, nedostatka kalcijuma. Ipak, postoje još neki faktori, ili bolje rečeno, predispozicije, koje u većoj ili manjoj meri imaju uticaja na nastanak bolesti. 

Osteoporozi izloženi su kako muškarci, tako i žene, pripadnici svih rasa. Ipak, mnogobrojna istraživanja potvrdila su da su ovoj bolesti nešto izloženije žene, a pogotovo pripadnice  belih i azijskih rasa, a naročito sa ulaskom u menopauzu.

Dodatni faktori rizika

Takođe se smatra i da verovatnoća da se osteoporoza razvije delimično zavisi i od količine koštane mase koja je dostignuta u mladosti. Donekle je, naravno, značajan i nasledni faktor, a u igri su i mnogi drugi faktori, poput ishrane i unosa dovoljne količine vitamina i minerala. U faktore rizika ubrajaju se i polni hormoni, tačnije njihov snižen nivo (smanjen nivo estrogena kod žena u menopauzi, kao i smanjen nivo testosterona kod muškaraca), kao i, na primer, bolesti štitne žlezde i nekih drugih žlezda (najčešće nadbubrežnih i paratiroidnih žlezda).

Pravilna ishrana (dovoljne količine proteina pre svega), dovoljno fizičke aktivnosti, kao i izbegavanje prekomernih količina alkohola tokom mladosti, mogu doprineti umanjenju rizika od nastanka osteoporoze u poznijim godinama.

U sprečavanju razvoja osteoporoze mogu biti korisni i različiti preparati nastali na prirodnoj osnovi, kao što je, na primer, goveđi želatin u prahu. Ovaj preparat je životinjskog porekla – pravi se od goveđe hrskavice, a pored toga što pomaže kod osteoporoze, delotvoran je i kod oštećenja zglobova – kolena, kuka, ramena, kičme, kao i u slučaju kostobolje, ili kada je oštećena hrskavica.

Simptomi na koje treba obratiti pažnju

Za kraj, važno je znati da u ranim fazama bolesti simptoma gotovo da i nema, ali nakon što se bolest razvije, ono što na nju može ukazati pre svega su: šetajući bolovi u leđima, povijeno držanje, smanjenje telesne visine, prelomi kostiju pri minimalnim traumama. Savetovanje sa lekarom preporučuje se i u slučaju rane menopauze, ili višemesečnog uzimanja kortikosteroida, ali i postojanja genetskih predispozicija za ranije oboljevanje.

By stijak

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