Suncokret spada u uljane industrijske biljke jer se u njegovom semenu sadrži od 25% do 53 % ulja. Ulje suncokreta je bogato različitim vitaminima te je iz rog razloga veoma zastupljen u prehrambenoj industriji. Ljudi ga koriste za pripremanje hrane prilikom prženja, pečenja, pripremanja kolača, salata i dr. Takođe, njegovo zrno je bogato belančevinama pa ga nazivamo i proteinskim hranivom. 

Kakve uslove gajenja zahteva suncokret?

Suncokret je biljka koja voli i kojoj je potrebno dosta svetlosti, a ona se može osigurati pravilnim sklopom i rasporedom biljaka. Najpovoljnija temperatura za rast i razvoj, pogotovo u periodu intenzivnog porasta, cvetanja, oplodnje i nalivanja semena se kreće od 20°C do 25°C. Temperature niže od 15°C a više od 25°C smanjuju sintezu ulja u semenu. Što se tiče zemljišta, najbolje rezultate daje na dubokim, plodnim i strukturnim zemljištima slabo kisele i neutralne reakcije (primer černozem i ritska crnica). Takođe, suncokret zahteva puno vode. Najosetljiviji je u vreme oblikovanja glavica i nalivanja semena. S obzirom na to da mu je koren veoma razvijen i da prodire duboko u zemljište, vodu crpi iz dubljih slojeva pa je otporan na sušu. 

Žetva suncokreta

Suncokret sazreva krajem avgusta, početkom septembra. Određivanje vlažnosti zrna se može vršiti na sledeći način: sa parcele na kojoj želimo da odredimo vlažnost suncokreta odsečemo par glava, iz kojih tupim predmetom izbijemo zrna i vlagomerom utvrdimo njihovu vlažnost. Vlaga semena suncokreta bi trebalo da bude između 14 i 15 % kako bi gubici u žetvi bili minimalni. Za čuvanje u skladištima vlaga bi trebalo da bude manja od 10% te je zato neophodno odmah nakon žetve seme otpremiti na čišćenje, sušenje i skladištenje. Žetva se vrši žitnim kombajnom uz dodatna podešavanja i upotrebu adaptera za suncokret. Obično treba da se podesi brzina kretanja kombajna, broj okretaja bubnja, razmak podbubnja, vazdušnu struju i otvor sita-rešeta, zavisno od stanja useva u momentu žetve.

Priprema kombajna za žetvu suncokreta

Pre same žetve, kako bi suncokret bio kvalitetno ovršen i kako bi došlo do minimalnih gubitaka a zrno ostalo čisto i neoštećeno, potrebno je  da kombajn bude ispravan i pravilno podešen.

  • Heder kombajna treba da bude podignut tako da bi se odsecanje glava suncokreta vršilo sa što manjom količinom štapova.
  • Bubanj kombajna treba da bude maksimalno usporen.
  • Zazor između bubnja i podbubnja treba da bude maksimalno povećan.
  • Vetar treba da bude usporen tako da ne izduvava seme suncokreta preko sita i moramo obratiti pažnju prilikom rada da ne dolazi do mrvljenja i mlevenja glava  ukoliko ne dolazi do dobrog izvršavanja zrna iz glava suncokreta Ovo se najčešće dešava kod žetve prezrelog useva (useva sa manjim sadržajem vlage od preporučene). Kod žetve ovakvih useva brzina kretanja kombajna bi trebala da bude manja.
  • Moguće je povećati brzinu kretanja kombajna kod žetve vlažnijeg useva.
  • Najoptimalnija brzina kretanja kombajna u toku žetve suncokreta je oko 5 km/h.

Pored  ispravnog kombajna za uspeh žetve su zaslužni i hibridi. Posebno su pogodni hibridi koji ujednačeno sazrevaju i imaju suvu stabljiku, kao i hibridi visoke otpornosti na poleganje. Danjašnja mehanizacija kombajna je dosta uznapredovala te pruža kvalitetnu žetvu uz male gubitke. 

By stijak

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